Sunday, December 1, 2013

East African Community

USA AfriCom provides security for oil shipments, especially from Kenyan pipelines.

East African Community website [], "One People One Destiny!"

"AFRICOM Posture Statement: Ward reports annual testimony to Congress"  

2010-03-10 by "US Africa Command" []:

 In October 2009, U.S. Africa Command, with U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) as the lead component, brought together more than 1,200 soldiers and civilians from six countries for Exercise NATURAL FIRE 10 in Uganda. The exercise improved inter-operability and helped build African partner capacity to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies. The region jointly exercised contingency plans designed to address a global health threat of pandemic influenza. Approximately 550 U.S. personnel and 650 soldiers from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda participated.

U.S. Naval Forces, Africa (NAVAF), is building on the success of the APS in West Africa by conducting similar activities in East Africa. APS-East will work to build our African partners' capabilities in small boat operations. Our partners include Kenya, Mozambique, the Seychelles, Mauritius, and Tanzania. The activities of the USS BRADLEY and the USS ARLEIGH BURKE in 2009 served as a pilot deployment for APS-East and made great inroads in South and East Africa. In addition, the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) established a maritime center of excellence in Mombasa, Kenya, to provide maritime training to African states. Both DOS and DOD approved a Section 1206 (Fiscal Year 06 National Defense Authorization Act, as amended) program to provide small boats, AIS, and surface search radars to Djibouti, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania, the Seychelles, Mauritius, and Comoros. The latter effort will establish a basic surveillance capability along the entire East African coast.

Building Capacity of Partner Enabling Forces -
 Enablers such as logistics, intelligence, communications, and de-mining capabilities play vital roles in the U.S. military, and facilitate our ability to sustain operations independently. Developing similar enablers or enabling capabilities among African countries can help reduce their dependence on foreign assistance when conducting military operations. Many of our capacity building activities in this area add tremendous value while requiring only a minimal commitment of U.S. personnel.

Counter-terrorism Efforts in East Africa -
In East Africa, U.S. Africa Command's CJTF-HOA conducts operations to counter violent extremists throughout the region to protect U.S. and coalition interests. In cooperation with other USG departments and agencies, CJTF-HOA focuses its operations on building regional security capacity to combat terrorism, deny safe havens, and reduce support to violent extremist organizations. It accomplishes these objectives through the use of Civil Affairs Teams, Seabee construction teams, military advisors, and by importing security courses of instruction.
U.S. Africa Command has focused the majority of its CT capacity building activities in East Africa on Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Uganda, which-aside from Somalia-are the countries directly threatened by terrorists. For example, in Kenya, the Command is assisting in establishing a Ranger Strike Force and a Special Boat Unit, which will become the country's primary CT and border security forces. SOCAFRICA completed training two companies of the Kenyan Ranger Strike Force, and our Special Operations Forces (SOF) maritime efforts have created a nascent Kenyan Special Boat Unit capability to enhance Kenyan maritime security. When completed, Kenya will have a significantly improved capacity to counter the terrorist threat emanating from Somalia.

The Uganda People's Defence Forces (UPDF) is one of the region's most professional militaries. It is a reliable partner in combating terrorism and, in collaboration with regional partners, is leading operations against the Lord's Resistance Army. Uganda's peacekeeping force in Somalia has played a critical role in providing the TFG an opportunity to establish itself. U.S. Africa Command and CJTF-HOA continue to work with the UPDF to enhance peacekeeping and CT capabilities through Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA), IMET, and PKO funded training.

"East African Community"
from the Office of the United States Trade Representative of the Executive Office of the President []:
The EAC is one of the leading regional economic organizations in sub-Saharan Africa and has made great strides in recent years toward integrating the economies of its member states. It has established a free trade area and a customs union and is working toward a common market.
On July 16, 2008, the United States and the East African Community (EAC) signed a United States-EAC TIFA in Washington, DC. Trade ministers and other senior officials from the five EAC member states - Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda - witnessed the signing.
The purpose of the TIFA is to strengthen the United States-EAC trade and investment relationship, expand and diversify bilateral trade, and improve the climate for business between U.S. and East African firms. The United States-EAC TIFA establishes regular, high-level talks on the full spectrum of United States-EAC trade and investment topics, including the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), the World Trade Organization's Doha Round, trade facilitation issues, and trade capacity building assistance.

U.S.-EAC Trade Facts -
The United States has $1.4 billion in total (two way) goods trade with the Eastern African Community (EAC) during 2009. Exports totaled $974 million; Imports totaled $384 billion; The U.S. goods trade surplus with the EAC was $590 million in 2009

Exports -
U.S. goods exports to the EAC in 2009 were $974 million, up 33.9% ($246 million) from 2009.
EAC countries combined would have been the United States' 74th largest goods export market in 2009.
The U.S. export markets in EAC for 2009 were: Kenya ($654 million), Tanzania ($158 million), Uganda ($119 million), Rwanda ($34 million), and Burundi ($9 million).
The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2009 were: Aircraft ($255 million), Machinery ($122 million), Fertilizers ($120 million), Cereals (corn) ($89 million), and Electrical Machinery ($46 million).
U.S. exports of agricultural products to EAC countries totaled $207 million in 2009. Leading categories include: coarse grains ($78 million), pulses ($29 million), and vegetable oils (excluding soybean oil) ($17 million).

Imports -
U.S. goods imports from the EAC countries totaled $384 million in 2009, down 18% ($85 million) from 2009.
EAC countries combined would have been the United States= 92nd largest goods import supplier in 2009.
The U.S. import suppliers from the EAC for 2009 were: Kenya ($281 million), Tanzania ($49 million), Uganda ($31 million), Rwanda ($19 million), and Burundi ($4 million).
The five largest import categories in 2009 were: Woven Apparel ($100 million), Spices, Coffee, and Tea (mostly coffee) ($98 million), Knit Apparel ($96 million), Edible Fruit and Nuts (cashews) ($11 million), and Special Other (returns) ($10 million).
U.S. imports of agricultural products from EAC countries totaled $136 million in 2009. Leading category include: coffee (unroasted) ($86 million).

Balance of Merchandise Trade -
The U.S. goods trade surplus with EAC was $ 590 million in 2009, a 128% increase ($331 million) over 2008.

Investment -
U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in EAC (stock) was $185 million in 2008 (latest data available), down 5.1% from 2007.

"East Africa Takes Step Toward Single Currency; Heads of State Reach Agreement for Monetary Union"
2013-11-30 by Nicholas Bariyo []:
Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni (C) arrives at Munyonyo resort Hotel in Kampala on November 30, 2013 to attend the 15th Ordinary Summit of the East African Community Heads of State (AFP, Isaac Kasamani)

KAMPALA, Uganda—Heads of state in East Africa on Saturday signed a monetary-union deal, setting the clock on a 10-year timeline for the establishment of a regional single currency.
The agreement, reached at the lakeside resort of Munyonyo in Kampala, came after nearly a decade of talks. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda will now try to establish institutions—including a regional central bank and a statistics body—to support the single currency.
The deal marks an important touchstone in the region's transition from a collection of conflict zones to one of the world's most promising destinations for investment.
"East African community is now fully embarked on enormous, ambitious and transformational initiatives for our people," said Uhuru Kenyatta, Kenya's president and new head of the regional block. "The promise of prosperity and economic development hinges on soundness of our integration."
After establishing the Customs Union in 2005, and the Common Market in 2010, East African countries have reached the third stage toward a united political federation: the Monetary Union Protocol.
But experts have also voiced concerns. "There remain a number of uncertainties about whether these countries can fully put in place a monetary union," said Oswald Leo, an economist at the East African Development Bank.
With a total population of about 135 million people, East Africa is becoming an investment magnet following a flurry of natural-gas and oil discoveries. Uganda and Kenya have discovered huge amounts of oil, while Tanzania boasts of huge natural-gas reserves. International companies have already started exploiting these resources, and the region is poised to become the next major energy hub in Sub Saharan Africa.
Member states will also establish the East African Monetary Institute, which will take charge of all the monetary and exchange-rate policies, while the statistics body will produce regular inflation figures to guide price stabilization.
In October, Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda signed a Single Customs Territory deal, allowing free movement of goods and services across their borders. They have also signed a number of infrastructure deals to put in place regional oil pipelines and a crossborder railway line, rattling Tanzania and Burundi. Early this week, Tanzania demanded that the deals be reviewed to be given a regional appeal.
"This separate coalition poses the risk to disintegrate the community rather than integrate it," said Samuel Sitta, Tanzania's minister in charge of the East African Cooperation.
Shem Bagaine, Uganda's minister in charge of the East African Community, said that all member states including Tanzania "have reaffirmed" their commitment to the integration following the heads-of-state summit in Kampala.

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